sábado, maio 03, 2008

Projeto Semi-árido (selo unicef)


A região do semi-árido brasileiro está praticamente incluída no Nordeste do país. É uma das cinco Regiões geopolíticas na qual o país está dividido, e compreende nove Estados. Apenas oito deles, ao menos em parte, estão incluídos na região semi-árida: Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia, além do Norte de Minas Gerais (Região Sudeste). Apenas o Maranhão, no limite com a Região Norte, que inclui a Bacia Amazônica, não está incluído no semi-árido. Essa extensão de terras áridas se extende entre os paralelos 3-17°S e 35-45°W e ocupa uma área de aproximadamente 900.000 km², cobrindo quase 8% do território nacional, uma área maior que o Texas ou que toda a Península Ibérica, incluindo Espanha e Portugal.


O clima do Nordeste é um dos mais complexos do país, devido a grande área, com diferentes fisionomias de relevo, e especialmente a associação de dois sistemas climáticos formados pelos alísios do Nordeste e Sudeste, o que propicia chuvas em diversos períodos do ano e em diferentes quantidades.


O clima varia na região, desde o súper-úmido, com chuvas de até 2000 mm/ano, até o semi-árido, com chuvas entre 300-500 mm/ano, no qual as chuvas ficam restritas a uns poucos mêses durante o ano. Desse modo, a disponibilidade de água é o fator mais determinante para a vegetação e a fauna, e até certo ponto para a exploração humana dos recursos natuais.

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